• 7th Grade PAP Science

         
    2017-2018 Year at a Glance
     1st Semester 2nd Semester 
    1st 9-Weeks
    • Earth
    • Changing Landforms
     3rd 9-Weeks
    • Changing Matter
    • Describing Motion
    2nd 9-Weeks
    • Changing Landforms... Cont.
    • Energy
    4th 9-Weeks
    • Describing Motion... Cont.
    • Exploring Space
     
     
    Unit 1 - Earth:

     

    Students will understand that.....

    • Earth’s materials are made up of elements.

    • Known elements are listed on the Periodic Table of Elements.

    • Earth is made up of layers that each play a vital role in its composition and structure.

    • Earth has three main layers that are subdivided into additional layers.

    • If we attempted to travel all the way to the Earth's inner core, we would be crushed into pieces from the very high pressure, and be burned up from the intense heat.

    • All rocks are made of two or more minerals.

    • A mineral is the same all the way through.

    • You can use field guides to identify rocks and minerals.

    • Luster describes the way light reflects off the surface of a mineral.

    • Minerals can scratch minerals with lower hardness ratings.

    • Metamorphic, Igneous, and Sedimentary rocks are continuously broken down, created, and recycled, through the Rock Cycle.

    • Engineering connection: Constructing scale models of the Earth aids engineers in the development of robots that travel deep into the different layers of the Earth.

    Essential Questions:

    • How is Earth a system? What are the parts of this system?

    • What are Earth’s materials made from?

    • What are the two main elements of the lithosphere?

    • What are the main elements of the biosphere?

    • What are the elements in pure water?

    • What are the main elements of the atmosphere?

    • How and why is the solid Earth described using layers?

    • What is chemical composition, state of matter, and thickness of each of Earth’s layers?

    • What are the minerals found in each layer of the Earth? How do these minerals relate to the state of matter of that layer?

    • How do Earth’s layers change and what causes those changes?

    • How is the Rock cycle a system?

      

    Critical Vocabulary:

    • Element

    • Compound

    • Mineral

    • Hardness

    • Mohs Hardness Scale

    • Color

    • Pure Substance

    • Luster

    • Living Matter

    • Lithosphere

    • Inner Core

    • Outer Core

    • Mantle

    • Crust

    • Metamorphic

    • Solid Earth

    • Streak

    • Rock cycle

    • Igneous

    • Sedimentary

    • Lava

    • Atmosphere

    • Lithosphere

    • Geosphere

    • Rock

    • Biosphere

    • Magnetic attraction

     
     
    Unit 2 - Changing Landforms:

    Enduring Understanding(s): Students will understand that.....

    • Landforms are created and altered through the interaction of constructive and destructive forces over time.

    • The theory of Plate Tectonics says that Earth’s lithospheric plates move and cause changes to crustal features.

    • There is a wide variety of landforms in Texas (such as coastlines, rivers, mountains, deltas and canyons)

    • People create ecoregion boundaries to identify and categorize important factors in ecosystem health.

    • Ecoregions are large areas with similar natural resources, climate and geography where ecosystems recur in predictable patterns.

    • The earth's surface is shaped by the motion of water (including ice) and wind over very long times, which acts to level mountain ranges. Rivers and glacial ice carry off soil and break down rock, eventually depositing the material in sediments or carrying it in solution to the sea.

    • The earth’s surface is quickly shaped by the motion of water as the result of catastrophic events.

    Essential Questions:

    • How are mountains formed?

    • Why don’t the edges of tectonic plates always match the edges of continents?

    • How does the study of plate tectonics benefit humans?

    • How do scientists use topographic maps and satellite views to study Earth’s surface?

    • How does knowing about past changes in the Earth’s surface help us to predict future change?

    • What are the distinguishing abiotic and biotic factors for each of the ten Texas ecoregions? What are the geographic locations for each of the Texas ecoregions?

    • What evidence of weathering, erosional and depositional processes can be cited as characteristic features in the various Texas ecoregions?

    • How can we connect weather and climate to physical regions and ecoregions of Texas?

    • How can we connect physical features to biological inhabitants of ecosystems?

    • How important is coastal erosion?

    • Can erosion be prevented?


     
     

    Critical Vocabulary:

    • Catastrophic event

    • Hurricane

    • Weathering

    • Erosion

    • Sediments

    • Topography

    • Deposition

    • Ecoregion

    • Topographic Map

    • Elevation

    • Volcano

    • Trench

    • Plate Tectonic Theory

    • Fossil Evidence

    • Lithosphere

    • Continental drift

    • Inner Core

    • Outer Core

    • Mantle

    • Pangea

    • Continental Drift

    • Mid Ocean Ridge

    • Fault

    • Seafloor Spreading

    • Tectonic Plate

    • Satellites

    • Satellite Views

    • Weathering

    • Erosional features

    • Sediment deposition

    • Earthquake

    • African, Pacific, Eurasion, Indo-Australian, North American, South American Plates

    • Convergent Boundary

    • Transform Boundary

    • Subduction

    • Rift Valley

    • Divergent Boundary

     
    Unit 3 - Energy:
     
     
    • Energy transfer within the system produces weather.

    • Matter that absorbs heat energy tends to rise, and matter that loses heat energy tends to fall. This constant churning of hot and cold is called convection.

    • Convection occurs in currents of gas or liquid.

    • Slower energy absorption and transfer in the ocean causes changes in weather patterns.

    • Warmer air has less pressure than cooler air. Differences in air pressure cause movement of air, which is wind.


    • Some of Earth’s resources are renewable, while others are nonrenewable.

    • Communities utilize and manage their resources differently.

    • Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it moves through all systems.


    • How does thermal energy move through matter? Is this a predictable pattern?

    • If the energy from the sun is blocked, how would the earth be affected?

    • When does an ice cube stop melting?

    • What are the advantages or disadvantages of using both renewable and nonrenewable?

    • What resources should be included in a “green” community?

    • What is the difference between energy transfer and transformation?

    • Thermal energy moves in a predictable pattern (high concentration to low concentration)


    Critical Vocabulary:

    • Thermal Energy

    • Law of Conservation of Energy

    • Temperature

    • Conduction

    • Conductor

    • Insulator

    • Convection

    • Radiation

    • Wind

    • Renewable resource

    • Nonrenewable resource

    • Coal

    • Oil

    • Natural gas

    • Nuclear Power

    • Law of Conservation of Energy

    • Energy

    • Atmosphere

    • Biomass

    • Wind

    • Hydropower

    • Geothermal

    • Solar

    • Thermal Energy

    • Radiation

    • Ocean currents

    • Air Pressure

     
     
    Unit 4 - Changing Matter:
     
     

    • An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler different substances.

    • Elements are represented on the Periodic Table of Elements with symbols containing one capital letter or one capital and one lowercase letter.(newer elements may have 3 letters)

    • Compounds are made of atoms of different kinds of elements that are bound together.

    • A compound is a pure substance and not a mixture.

    • Density is a property that does not depend on the amount of the substance.

    • Density is a physical property that can be used to determine the identity of an unknown substance.


    • Essential Questions: 

    • What is an element? 

    • How are elements represented on the Periodic Table of Elements? 

    • What is the difference between an element and a compound? 

    • How is density used to describe matter? 

    • How is density measured and calculated? 

    • How can the density of a substance be used for identification?

     
    Critical Vocabulary
    • Product

    • Reactant

    • Chemical Change

    • Coefficient

    • Subscript

    • Atom

    • Pure substance

    • Mixture

    • Element

    • Mass

    • Volume

    • Gram


    • Compound

    • Metals

    • Nonmetals

    • Metalloids

    • Physical Properties

    • Chemical Properties

    • Luster

    • Conductivity

    • Cubic centimeter

    • Milliliter (mL)

    • Displacement

    • Precipitate

  • Malleability

  • Brittle

  • Insulator

  • Conductor

  • Semiconductor

  • Classify

  • Periodic table of Elements

  • Matter

  • Property

  • Density

  • Relative Density


  •  
     
    Unit 5 - Describing Motion:
     
     
    • Force is a push or pull between two objects that can cause an object to stretch, bend, change motion or not change at all.

    • Force and motion are related to potential to kinetic energy

    • A variety of force-pairs exist in nature.

    • The forces of gravity and turgor pressure affect plants.

    • The interrelation of motion, force, and energy can be described, measured and explained.

    • Identify and describe how unbalanced forces change an object's motion.

    • Unbalanced forces acting on an object changes its speed.

    • How do kinetic and potential energy compare and contrast?

    • Compare the effect on an object of an unbalanced force to a balanced force?

    • How do you calculate average speed?

    • How do you measure and graph changes in motion?

    • Calculate how unbalanced forces change an object's motion.

    • How do roots grow when the direction of gravity changes?

     

    Critical Vocabulary:

    • Balanced Force

    • Unbalanced Force

    • Energy

    • System

    • Potential Energy

    • Kinetic Energy

    • Energy Transformation

    • Force

  • Fixed Pulley

  • Lever

  • Simple Machine

  • Spring Scale

  • Newton

  • Motion

  • Resting position

  • Speed

  • Average Speed

  • Direction

  • Distance-Time Graph

  • Line graph

  • X-axis

  • Y-axis

  • Friction

  • Distance

  • Inclined plane

  •  
    Unit 6 - Exploring Space:
     
     
    • There are physical characteristics that are unique and distinguish the inner planets from the outer planets. (Such as distance from the sun, revolution period, solid vs. gas, size, moons)

    • The solar system is composed of planets and other objects that orbit the sun.

    • The interaction between the moon, earth, and sun with in the solar system and how the solar system interacts within the galaxy and galaxy within the universe.

    • Every object exerts gravitational force on every other object. The force depends on how much mass the objects have and on how far apart they are.

    • The discovery by Galileo of four moons around Jupiter reinforced Copernican Theory on the interaction of the planets and the sun within our solar system. (Planets revolve around the sun)

    • What are the relative positions of the celestial bodies that make up the solar system?

    • What are Galilean moons?

    • How do periods of rotation, periods of revolution, and the shape of orbital paths differ between the planets, our moon and the Galilean moons?

    • What are physical characteristics that distinguish the inner planets from the outer planets?

    • How does gravity impact the movement of the planets?

    • How does the solar system move within the galaxy?

    • How does the galaxy move within the universe?

    • How did Galileo’s discovery reinforce the movement of the planets and sun within our solar system?

    • What historical discoveries furthered mankind’s progress in the exploration of space?

    • What future projects are projected for continued space exploration and space travel in the coming decades of the 21st century?

     
     

    Critical Vocabulary:

    • Sun

    • Planet

    • Inner Planet

    • Outer Planet

    • Meteorite

    • Meteor

    • Meteoroid

    • Comet

    • Asteroid

    • Asteroid Belt

    • Rotation

  • Revolution

  • Axis

  • Tilt

  • Orbit

  • Satellite (natural vs. artificial)

  • Zero Gravity

  • Planet

  • Rocket

  • Space Shuttle

  • Space Probe

  • Space Station


    • Project Gemini

    • Project Apollo

    • NASA

    • Solar System

    • Atmosphere

    • Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

    • Rover

    • Telescope

    • Observatory

    • Galilean moons

    • Project Mercury