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Ahmed Hadi Mohammed Rashidi 1, 2, Mohammed Hidayat Jamal 2, 3, Mohammed Zaki Hassan 4, *, Siti Salihah Mohammed Sendek 1, Siazana Lyana Mohammed Sopi 1 and Mohammed Razji Abd Hamid 1

National Water Research Institute of Malaysia (NAHRIM), Lot 5377, Jalan Putra Permai, Rizab Melayu Sungai Kuyoh, Seri Kembangan 43300, Malaysia

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Center for Coastal and Ocean Engineering (COEI), Research Institute for Sustainable Environment (RISE), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Malaysia

Received: May 18, 2021 / Revised: June 13, 2021 / Accepted: June 20, 2021 / Published: June 23, 2021

Malaysia’s coastline is at risk of coastal erosion and sea level rise. The 2015 National Coastal Erosion Study reported that 15% of the 8,840 km of coastline is currently eroded, of which a third is in the critical and critical categories requiring structural protection. A study on sea level rise in Malaysia, 2017, showed an average annual sea level rise of 0.67–0.74 mm. This study examines selected coastal protection structures along the Malaysian coast as adaptation to sea level rise based on erosion control and coastal management strategies. Hard structures such as rock revetments and levees are used as erosion protection systems in a “hold the line” strategy. Considered an “adaptation” method, the platform level of the dikes and land links is elevated, effective in protecting erosion and adapting to sea level rise. Mangrove transplanting is suitable as a “limited intervention” method to reduce the long-term effects of both threats. However, offshore dikes, groins and geotextile tubes are only for safety reasons and are ineffective for adapting to sea level rise. As sea levels continue to rise, their job of protecting the coasts also becomes less effective. In summary, this comprehensive review of Malaysian coastal security will benefit relevant agencies in future assessments.

Beach erosion; sea ​​level rise; Coast Guard Structure; adaptation; Coastal erosion in Malaysia; sea ​​level rise; Coast Guard Structure; adaptation; Malaysia

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As a maritime country, Malaysia’s coastline constantly faces threats from the sea, leading to coastal erosion and sea level rise. The country is located near the equator in Southeast Asia, where its major ports are located on international shipping and maritime routes [1]. It is surrounded by seven sea zones where the total sea area is almost twice the width of the earth [2]. So these two specific threats continue to affect the physical, socio-economic and biological diversity of the coastal zone.

Coastal erosion is defined as the long-term loss of sediment in coastal areas due to changes in hydrodynamic patterns such as wind, waves, and currents [ 4 , 5 ]. In the natural coastal cycle, sediments are transported and distributed along the coast by these hydrodynamic forces, providing material for dunes, beaches and marshes [6]. Although human activities often induce erosion, however, with a combination of natural forces; Impacts are increasing due to climate change [7]. In Malaysia, coastal processes are strongly influenced by the East Asian monsoon system which brings intense physical phenomena related to waves, current speed, wind and high frequency of rainfall [8] , which subsequently affect the cycle of coastal erosion. and development.

Meanwhile, sea level rise (SLR) is permanent coastal inundation due to global sea level rise resulting from the effects of climate change [9]. The main contributors to SLR are ocean heat expansion, melting of ice sheets and glaciers, and land water changes [10]. SLR can be considered one of the most important and costly effects of global warming. Potential adverse effects of SLR are coastal flooding, rapid coastal erosion, salt water intrusion, and land subsidence [11]. Global sea level rise has also been found to be ultimately responsible for the long-term problems of coastal erosion [12].

The effects of coastal erosion and sea level rise include loss of human life, disruption of economic sectors, and degradation of natural ecosystems and biodiversity [13]. Environmental problems continue to affect more than 30% of Malaysia’s coastal population [14] and are increasing due to climate change and human impact. More than 20% of Malaysia’s coastline has been developed mainly for urbanization and tourism purposes [15], as it is also a center of economic activities including aquaculture, agriculture, industry, and oil and gas exploitation [16, 17]. These threats severely affect coastal areas due to land subsidence and flooding, especially the aging of coastal structures due to exposure to prolonged and extreme weather conditions, accelerating the deterioration of infrastructure and increasing the estimated population living in coastal urban areas [18, 19, 20]. ].

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The main objective of this article is to assess the current state of coastal erosion and sea level rise in the country. The study examines the functions of coastal defense structures as erosion control and adaptation measures to sea level rise in selected areas along the Malaysian coast. From a coastal zone management perspective, several methods can be considered, which may be suitable for sea level rise and erosion defense strategies, such as “hold the line”, “managed realignment” and ” movement towards the sea”. Depending on the erosion classification and land use requirements, the conservation method can be the choice of hard structures, soft engineering or a combination of both techniques [22]. Conventional rigid structures, e.g. seawalls, reefs, concrete dams and groyne structures are commonly constructed to protect and protect selected damaged beaches [23]. However, structural measures are relatively expensive, not very environmentally friendly, and often affect natural coastal habitats [24, 25]. Therefore, alternatives to soft engineering methods or ecologically based approaches (EbA) such as beach nourishment and mangrove replanting are preferred [26].

Malaysia is located near the equator in Southeast Asia at 2°30′ N latitude and 112°30′ E longitude, bordering Thailand, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia and Brunei. The coast faces seven large bodies of water: the Andaman Sea, the Straits of Malacca, the Straits of Singapore, the South China Sea, the Gulf of Thailand, the Celebes Sea, and the Sulu Sea. Malaysia consists of fourteen states in two regions; Peninsular or West Malaysia (PM) and East Malaysia (EM), separated by the South China Sea as shown in Figure 1. PM consists of twelve states and the other two states are in EM (excluding a federal territory of Labuan Island). The total area of ​​Malaysia is approximately 330,803 km

Of which 99.63% is land and the remaining 0.37% is groundwater. While the total surface area of ​​the sea is almost double the total surface area of ​​the earth, 14,159 km

Malaysia has a total coastline length of 8840 km, of which PM has a coastline of 3771.5 km and EM is longer than 5068.5 km [28]. The beach is mostly erosive alluvium, about half of the beach is sandy and not very muddy, and there are few rocky beaches. Sandy beaches were found to be dominant in eastern PM, western EM and parts of western PM [29]. In contrast, mud, silt, and silt are more distributed along the west coast of the PM and along the north and east coasts of the EM. Natural physical phenomena related especially to waves, currents, tides and wind have a great influence on the dynamic process of coastal areas, especially during the rainy season.

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Malaysia is geographically blessed and generally protected from severe natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and typhoons, however, it is prone to major flooding problems. There are two distinct types of floods in Malaysia: flash floods and monsoon floods. Flash floods are usually caused by heavy rain accompanied by strong thunderstorms with a time scale of less than six hours. While monsoon floods occur due to long periods of heavy rains that inundate the land. The average annual precipitation for PM is greater than 2420 mm and for EM greater than 2600 mm [30].

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