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Photonics Research Group; Department of Electrical and Information Engineering; Polytechnic of Bari, By Edoardo Orabona n. 4, 70125 Bari, Italy

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Received: November 16, 2016 / Revised: December 21, 2016 / Accepted: December 28, 2016 / Published: January 3, 2017

In recent years, Architectures in Communication Networks; Tools and equipment have been challenged by the changing conditions that have drastically changed the characteristics of the road. Many of these changes mean the need for major restructuring and programming not only in data centers and core networks, but also in the metro access sector. For a wide range of scenarios, we address this need by offering a new paradigm of software-defined networking (SDN). Many solutions inspired by the SDN model have recently been proposed for metro and access networks as well. Adoption of a new generation of software-defined reconfigurable integrated imaging devices is highly desirable. In this paper, the analysis, Based on statistics and research, we review the possible conditions for the application of software-defined metro and access to the network with software-defined photonics (SDP). This work explains the reasons behind the major paradigm shift presented and summarizes the best solutions proposed in the literature, focusing on reconfigurable networks of physical quality and design and materials.

“It’s hard to predict, especially in the future.” This phrase, often attributed to Niels Bohr, is the social, social and economic development of the Internet. It is well suited to the communication landscape of the coming years, which will undergo drastic and rapid changes due to economic and technological influences. One of the most likely predictions is the role played by the reconfigurable and programmable approach created by the SDN paradigm.

The SDN model is based on a complete decoupling between the control plane of the central developer and the part of the network server for the distribution of traffic packets, to develop the complexity of network resources for the development of new applications and services. 1]. The first SDN architecture specification was published by the Open Networking Forum (ONF). network operators; It is provided by a number of service providers and vendors. The ONF SDN architecture is composed of three distinct layers: the infrastructure layer; That is, the network elements of packet and forwarding; Management layer That is, the network intelligence that manages the network elements; and Application List; That is, service requests. In the ONF version of SDN, the central controller uses an open interface – the OpenFlow protocol – to communicate with network elements. Although the field of SDN is still new, it is growing rapidly. The first idea attracted a lot of interest from academia and industry. By default, the SDN solution is split plane; simple tools; middle management; Network automation and virtualization and transparency [2]. However, a wide range of offerings have been developed to simplify network management and network design innovation. The main idea is to allow developers to manage network resources with the same flexibility as storage and computing resources [3].

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The idea of ​​a reconfigurable and programmable network has been around for years: in 1995, the Open Signaling Working Group (OPENSIG) proposed an open, programmable network communication and led to the specification of the General Switch Management Protocol (GSMP). of the IETF) in the mid-1990s. The Active Networking Initiative offers user programmable switches and capsules for configuring routers. At the same time, the Project for Control of ATM Networks (DCAN) aims to provide scalable management and control of ATM networks. In 2004, Project 4D advocated for a clean slate design that emphasized the distinction between routing and communication protocols for network elements. In 2006, the SANE/Ethane project proposed a central administrator [3] to manage policy and security in the network.

Today, the most important changes in the telecommunications industry produced by SDN will be joined by the adoption of another important trend, Network Functions Virtualization (NFV). In terms of NFV; Network objects are software applications called virtual network functions (VNFs) that are powered by a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) network infrastructure. The integration of SDN/NFV technologies will enable the flexible composition of parallel-based logic functions, built by the network as building blocks or existing services to provide or consider the so-called “network slicing” [4] Therefore, the “softwareization” of network resources will be it is a process change that is driving not only network development but also future terminals and service platforms [5]. Then, Among cloud computing architectures, the Network as a Service (NaaS) paradigm will benefit greatly from SDN deployment.

SDN centralizes traffic engineering and the network world; Using general web knowledge allows for effective use of existing links. It is the efficient use of network bandwidth and user needs; It means the ability to respond quickly and with minimal service disruption to changes in service contracts for upgrades and upgrades or requirements related to network errors and failures. In other words, SDN makes a dynamic change of paths to high-bandwidth and low-latency paths and traffic priority [2]. Web services will be easily configured as web services. Because the operating systems of personal computers make the hardware system inferior; Future network systems (NOS) that will provide centralized network abstraction of network infrastructure will provide a visual interface and understanding of seemingly infinite network resources. For users [6].

It is easy to predict that the revolution presented by the reconfigurable SDN approach will have a strong impact on the business models of network operators and the entire telecommunications ecosystem. On the other hand, Market changes will drive SDN technology development. For example, As the demand for bandwidth increases and providing more bandwidth is not free. Flat charging systems where revenue and use of network resources are split (users buy capacity packages and services and do not use their network. How much do they pay); It is not economically sustainable. Bandwidth on Demand (BoD) business models will be essential for network operators. In addition, Network operators have high flexibility; Google, which provides efficiency and high availability. Amazon To compete with Facebook and other over-the-top (OTT) players, they will have to change the product chain. For example, Deutsche Telekom, will find its strategy in SDN-inspired real-time network and service management to be a driver defined in software. A new global talent market [6] can be expected with skills to buy in real time. In that case, Network operators, usually in the global sphere, will open their NOS interfaces to third parties (software developers, small companies, etc.) in the sense of competitive cooperation. Therefore, Reducing the market over time and meeting the great demand of the past; A new global socio-economic agenda will be born where digital services are designed globally and delivered locally.

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All of the above considerations show that the concept of SDN brings significant changes to the technical and business perspectives of telecommunications networks. Although the concept of SDN has been adopted in data centers for the past five years, the implementation of SDN,

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